The Russian Carbine
Mosin-Nagant M. 1907
And Photos: Karl-Heinz Wrobel & Vic Thomas
|1.015 meters/1015 mm
|Front: unprotected blade drift adjustable
||Rear: Tangent graduated to 1900 and 2000 meters
The Name Of The Carbine
Even in new publications
and works, many authors refer to a "Cossack-carbine
M. 1907", a "Carbine M. 1910" or a "Cossack-carbine
M. 1910." All these references are incorrect.
The only correct name is "Three-Line-Carbine,
Model of the Year 1907." It is even incorrect
too to refer to this carbine as the "Carbine
Mosin-Nagant M. 1907", as was done in the headline
of this article; however, the names of the designers
of the Three-Line-Rifles are so commonly used in
the Western Countries as names that it seems permissible
to make use of this name while not entirely correct.
The Russians always
designated their rifles after the year of introduction,
and it was 1907 this carbine was adopted into service.
What is the reason, that many authors use the wrong
nomenclature? It seems that the Germans are guilty
here. In the "KENNBLÄTTERN FREMDEN GERÄTS",
used in WW II, the Germans enlisted a nearly unknown
old Czarist carbine and gave it the name M. 1910.
Many authors, especially in the USA, trusted the
accuracy of the Germans and used that name in their
publications. Other authors trusted these authors
and so the error became "historical truth".
True carbines had
normally been issued to various mounted troops, and
it seems that the author or dealer, who "designed" the
word "Cossack-carbine", knew, that the
Russian Dragoon troops had an their own rifle. The
only other Imperial Russian troops besides the Dragoons
and Czarist Guard Cavalry Units that utilized horses
were Cossack troops, but the author did not know,
that the Cossacks had their own long rifle version
of the Mosin Nagant. This author used this fantasy
and another incorrect designation was born.
Rare M1907 Carbine
without the crossbolt through the stock.
The Carbine's History
carbine M. 1907 is not the first carbine Mosin-Nagant, as
there are two earlier models. One with a permanently attached
metal bayonet-scabbard on the right side of the weapon and
the other know as the "Gendarmerie Carbine (border police
carbine). Both of these early carbines are extremely rare.
If you were to find a first pattern Gendarmerie-Carbine PLEASE
tell me, as there are only 11 ever known to have been manufactured.
I will gladly sell my house, endure the divorce, and buy it
(smile). It is this carbine that is the direct predecessor
of the carbine M. 07.
St. Petersburg Cavalry Carbine - Another rare Mosin Nagant which has traits like the M1907 as these are much
like a 1907 with a side folding bayonet
In 1891 the military
leaders of the Czarist Empire could not foresee the
possible use of a carbine and it was decided to issue
all units the two long rifle models of the Mosin
Nagant. In the Russo/Japanese War of 1904/5 it became
evident there was an urgent need of a handier weapon
for technical troops like machine gun units or sappers.
Therefore on May 11, 1907 the Czar decided that a
carbine should be introduced immediately. On May
23, 1907 the Russian Artillery Commission submitted
order No. 287 to Colonel Nikolai Ivanovitch Jurlov,
who had designed the Gendarmerie Carbine already,
to begin manufacturing a new carbine.
Carbine M. 1907, First Pattern
I must state that
the Russians never did officially designate a "first" or "second" pattern.
In all official Imperial Russia records there is
only a reference to the "Three-Line-Carbine
Model of the Year 1907". Using these "patterns" will
make it easier in describing the main differences
in the development of the carbine. The first pattern
is a rare Mosin Nagant crown jewel as well. It was
designed for the first rounded nose cartridge M.
1891 and the majority of these original carbines
have been altered for the later spitzer bullet.
bis 1.900 arshini
3.1 Special features
of the carbine M. 1907, first pattern
Stock and handguard
Both stock and
handguard nearly come up the muzzle, which means
a bayonet can not be attached to the weapon. The
backsight is inletted in the rear end of the handguard,
with it ending about two inches behind the backsight.
This rear part of the carbine handguard caused several
problems and one will find many handguards broken
in this rear location.
The first pattern
does not have the crossbolt through the stock. There
was no need for the crossbolt as the cartridge M.
1891 had much less power than the later M. 1908 cartridge.
The carbines have
a very specific backsight, that one will not find
on any other Mosin-Nagant with the exception of the
before mentioned carbine with bayonet-scabbard. Workers
at Sestroretsk developed this rear sight. It functions
in the same way as the normal Russian backsights,
but the axis to open the sight for longer distance
shooting is located in the back of the sightleaf.
There are two different
types of sightleafs one will encounter, and both
will have a slot in the middle of the leaf. The slot
of the first version ends in a semicircle on the
upper side, while the second has a second smaller
semicircle above the normal one. Both sightleafs
of this first pattern have the same graduation, up
to 1.900 arshini only.
First pattern rear
3.2 Production data
It is very difficult
to say how many carbines of the first pattern were
produced. The files in the Russian archives mention
only two years. It is sure that only some hundred
carbines were built in 1907, the first year of production.
As the first pattern of this carbine is quite rare,
it is also very difficult to collect serial numbers
of the carbines. The highest number I have encountered
is 19052 from a carbine dated 1909. It should also
be noted that carbines used the same numbers as the
Infantry and Dragoon rifles M. 1891. In 1911 the
files say, that 22.437 carbines were manufactured
in that year. The yearly production increased from
1908 up to 1911. This means, that about 10.000 had
been produced in 1908 and about 20.000 in 1909, according
to the increase and decrease of the production data
of the other Mosin Nagant rifles. It is this
data that reasons me to believe, that about 44.000
carbines M. 1907 first pattern had been manufactured
up to 1909.
Carbine Mosin-Nagant M. 1907, Second Pattern
pattern" Carbine M. 07 was manufactured for
the use of the improved cartridge M. 1908. Just as
the Dragoon and Cossack Rifles, the Carbines M. 07
did not receive the new spitzer bullet cartridge
in 1908 but two years later in 1910. This is in contrast
to the Infantry Rifles M. 1891 which were built for
the new cartridge starting in 1908.
bis 2.000 arshini
4.1 Special features
of the carbine M. 1907, second pattern
in outward appearance there are some minor but important
differences between the two patterns of carbine.
that is conspicuous is the addition of a crossbolt,
which was introduced 1910 after some severe accidents
with the new cartridge in the M91 Infantry Rifles.
(As stated earlier the M91 Infantry models used the
cartridge M. 1908 from 1908 to 1910 without the recoil
bolt.) The energy of the stronger new cartridge had
at times pushed the metal parts of the rifles rearward
through the stock and into the face of the shooter.
Therefore a strengthening bolt for the stock was
that can be easily seen is the altered backsight.
The graduation on the second version reaches from
400 arschini to 2.000 arschini not the 1.900 in the
previous example. The two different shapes of the
slot in the middle of the sightleaf can be encountered
on these carbines as well. The second pattern backsights
are the more "common" of the two. This
form is what most lucky owners of a Carbine M. 07
will find on their weapon.
Rear sight second
Just as the Dragoon
Rifle, in the last two years of production the handguard
of the carbine M. 07 was altered a little bit. After
1916 the handguard was shortened to end under the
backsight to avoid cracking.
4.2 Production data
One can only estimate
the production data per year of the second pattern
of the carbine. Using production data of the first
pattern, it can be assumed that about 10.000 carbines
were manufactured in 1910. It is known that 22.437
were produced in 1911. Further it is known that 122.659
carbines were built from 1910 up to 1913. Most of
these, about 70.000, were manufactured in 1913. This
would mean, that about 10.000 carbines left the factory
On August 1914
WW I broke out and while this had the consequences,
the amount of manufactured carbines surely did not
decrease in large numbers. Estimating very carefully,
I have concluded that in the years 1914 to 1917 about
60.000 carbines per year were produced. That would
make about 300.000 carbines of the second pattern
While some authors
have stated that carbine production ended in 1914,
I personally have inspected several carbines dated
from 1914 to 1917.
In May 1907 the
Izhevsk factory received the manufacturing order
for the new army-carbines. It was mentioned in this
order that production of the M1907 Carbine was not
to interfere or cause a reduction in production of
the Infantry/Dragoon/Cossack Rifles. Several new
parts had to be designed, like the barrel and stock,
as the carbines did not use a shortened barrel or
stock of an Infantry or Dragoon rifle. Izhevsk was
the only factory that produced the Carbine M. 1907.
While one may encounter information of carbine production
at Sestroretsk, it is important to note these were
versions of the Gendarmerie-Carbine.
Therefore all carbines
M. 07 will be proofed with the main brand of the
Izhevsk factory . These proofs
will be found in the same location as the M91 Rifles
but both only up to 1918 as the proofs were changed.
The normal factory
logo (bow and arrow) will appear on the receiver
and many of the small parts, like bands, bandspring,
sights etc. They will also bear the markings of the
Russian proof commission:
Proof Commission Marking
Author Of Drei
Linien Die Gewehre Mosin-Nagant
(Please see book
information in the Interactive Area)