From Left to Right: SAT 25 "S" bullet, SAT 32 "S" bullet, VPT 44 "D-166" bullet, Incendiary, "PS" type Armor Piercing, Wood bullet Blank, Dummy, Russian Contract Tracer, Short Range Practice, Bore Erosion Test


Headstamp Codes:

Click on the code to see a picture of the headstamp

SAT - Sako

VPT - Valtion Patruunatehdas (State Munitions Plant)


Finland captured large stocks of ammunition from the Russians during the 1917 War for Independence. This ammunition will show up in repacks as well as 1940's Russian production captured in the Winter War. Russian cartridges using the yellow tipped "D" bullet will be found in Finnish boxes marked with a large "D". Some captured ammunition was used to produce blanks and dummies. Production of 7.62x54R began around 1920 using a copy of the 1908 Russian 147gr. "L" bullet which the Finns designated type "S". Much of this ammunition will be packed in German made stripper clips proofed with a small "DM". Around 1932 Finland began producing a beveled cartridge base replacing the earlier rounded style. In 1936 a heavier and fatter profile "D-166" bullet was introduced. The "PS" type Armor Piercing round used a blackened, thick brass jacketed bullet and was produced only during WWII. The Armor Piercing, .303 caliber bullets came from France and were loaded into Finnish 7.62x54R casings. Another type of Armor Piercing round used a fat profile bullet with a blue tip color. This was designated the "PS D-277".


In 1926 the VPT lettering style was changed. In 1932 the rounded head was changed to a beveled version


Tip Colors:

Red (White after 1942) -Tracer
Lt. Blue -Armor-Piercing
Yellow -Incendiary
Black over Red -Armor-Piercing Incendiary


Finnish Ammunition Abreviations and Terms:

(To help decode that box of Finnish ammunition)

  Abreviation on Label  
Ball (can be "S", "D" or "D-166" Kiv Kovia (or Kiv) Kivaarinpatruuna
Armor Piercing PS Panssari Patruuna
Tracer VJ Valojuovo Patrunna
Incendiary Sy Sytytys Patruuna
Armor Piercing Incendiary PS-SY Panssari-Sytytys Patruuna
Proof Testing (Red Cross) Korkeapaine Patruuna
Grenade Blank   Kivaarigranaatin Peruspatruuna
Training or Salute Blank PUU Puuluotin Paukkupatruuna
Dummy   Latausharjvituspatruuna
Sectioned examples of "S" bullet (left) and "D-166" bullet (right) ammunition

Both have a mild steel jacket with a lead core.


Packaging Examples:

5 round stripper clip of Finnish made ammunition with "S" bullets
5 round stripperclip of Finnish made ammunition with "D-166" bullets
The markings on a stripper clip made by Tikka
The markings on a stripper clip made by George W Sohlbeg
15 round box of Finnish manufactured "S" bullet ammuntion
15 round box of Finnish manufactured Ammunition with small Kiv on label. VPT 44 headstamp,
15 round box of repacked Russian Ammunition. "D" bullet, label.
15 round box of 1941 dated VPT Ball ammunition. Large "Kiv Kovia" label.  
15 round box of repacked Russian Armor-Piercing Incendiary with PS-SY label.  
1930's 20 round box of VPT target ammunition.