Of Peace Between the Republic of Finland
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
March 12, 1940
The government of
the Republic of Finland one the one hand and The
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics on the other hand.
Desiring to put to
an end the hostilities which have arisen between
the two countries and to create lasting peaceful
relations between them,
And being convinced
that the creation of precise conditions for reciprocal
security, including the security of the cities of
Leningrad and Murmansk and of the Murmansk Railway,
corresponds to the interest of both contracting parties.
Have to this end found
it necessary to conclude a peace treaty and have....agreed
upon the following:
Finland and the USSR shall cease immediately in accordance
with procedure laid down in protocol appended to
The national frontier
between the Republic of Finland and the USSR shall
run along a new line in such fashion that there shall
be included in the territory of the USSR, the entire
Karelian Isthmus with the city of Viipuri and Viipuri
Bay with its islands, the western and northern shores
of Lake Ladoga with the cities of Kexholm and Sortavala
and the town of Suojarvi, a number of islands in
the Gulf Of Finland, the area east of Markajarvi
with the town of Kuolajarvi, and part of the Rybachi
and Sredni peninsulas, all in accordance with the
map appended to this treaty.
A more detailed determination
and establishment of the frontier line shall be carried
out by a mixed commission made up of representatives
of the contacting powers, which commission shall
be named within ten days from the date of the signing
of this treaty.
Both contracting parties
undertake to refrain from any attack upon the other
and make no alliance and to participate in no coalition
directed against either of the contracting parties.
The Republic of Finland
agrees to lease to the Soviet Union for 30 years,
against an annual rental of eight million Finnish
marks to be paid by the Soviet Union, Hanko Cape
and the waters surrounding it in a radius of five
miles to the south and east and three miles to the
north and west, and also the several islands falling
within that area, in accordance with the map appended
to this treaty, for the establishment of a naval
base capable of defending the mouth of the Gulf of
Finland against attack; in addition to which, for
the purpose of protecting the naval base, the Soviet
Union is granted the right of maintaining there at
its own expense the necessary number of armed land
and air forces.
Within ten days from
the date this treaty enters into effect, the government
of Finland shall withdraw all its military forces
from Hanko Cape, which together with its adjoining
islands shall be transferred to the jurisdiction
of the USSR in accordance with this article of the
The USSR undertakes
to withdraw its troops for the Petsamo area which
the Soviet state voluntarily cede to Finland under
the peace treaty of 1920.
as provided in the peace treaty of 1920, to refrain
from maintain in the waters running along its coast
of the Arctic Ocean warships and other armed ships,
excluding armed ships of less than 100 tons displacement,
which Finland shall be entitled to maintain without
restriction, and also at most 15 warships or other
armed ships, the displacement of none of which shall
exceed four hundred tons.
as was provided in the same treaty, not to maintain
in the said waters any submarines or armed aircraft.
undertakes , as was provided in the same treaty,
not to establish on that coast military ports, naval
bases, or naval repair shops of greater capacity
than is necessary for the above-mentioned ships and
As provided in the
treaty of 1920, the Soviet Union and its citizens
are granted the right of free transit across the
Petsamo area to Norway and back, in addition to which
the Soviet Union is granted the right to establish
a consulate in the Petsamo area.
through the Petsamo area from the Soviet Union to
Norway, and likewise merchandise shipped through
the same area from Norway to the Soviet Union, is
exempted from inspection and control, with the exception
of such control as is necessary for the regulation
of transit traffic; neither customs duties nor transit
or other charges shall be assessed.
The above mentioned
control of transit merchandise shall be permitted
only in the form usual in such cases in accordance
with established practice in international communications.
Citizens of the Soviet
Union who travel through the Petsamo area to Norway
and from Norway back to the Soviet Union shall be
entitled to free transit passage of the basis of
passports issued by the appropriate officials of
the Soviet Union.
directives in effect, unarmed Soviet aircraft shall
be entitled to maintain air service between the Soviet
Union and Norway in the Petsamo area.
The government of
Finland grants to the Soviet Union the right of transit
for good between the Soviet Union and Sweden, and,
with a view to developing this traffic along the
shortest railway route, the Soviet Union and Finland
consider it necessary to build, each upon its own
territory and in so far as possible in the year 1940,
a railway which shall connect Kantalahti ( Kandalaksha
) and Kemijarvi.
Upon the coming into
force of this treaty economic relations between the
contacting parties shall be restored, and with this
end in view the contracting parties shall enter into
negotiations for the conclusion of a trade agreement.
This treaty of peace
shall enter into effect immediately upon being signed,
and shall be subject to subsequent ratification.
The exchange of instruments
of ratification shall take place within ten days
in the city of Moscow.
This treaty has been
prepared in two original instruments, in the Finnish
and the Swedish languages and in Russian, at Moscow
this 12 day of March, 1940.
( A separate protocol
appended to the peace treaty, provided for the cessation
of hostilities and details regarding the withdraw
of troops from the various sectors of the front and
the turning over of the ceded lands to the USSR )
History Of Finland" John H Wuorinen